It 'a surgical technique that uses the effects of low temperatures to kill cancer cells.
The term derives from the greek cryo (Krio) which means cold.
These needles are called criodi (or probes) and their temperature, in the operational phase, can reach values which are of the order of several tens of degrees below zero.
In comparison with traditional surgical instruments such as scalpels, electrocautery, laser, etc.. the intervention system cryogenic not cause cuts on textiles. You do not have, therefore, bleeding, and accordingly does not arise the need to suture the treated part.
There are different types of shapes and sizes criodi most varied according to the nature of the intervention.
For example, surgeons use a dermatological only criobisturi that is resting for a relatively short time (a few minutes) on the part of the tissue to be ablated while, for example, in operations on prostate tumors, using eight (or even more) needles that are inserted into the intervention area for times that are around about thirty minutes.
We will examine in the following, when we talk in depth, the various techniques (nature and number of probes and response times) that are now practiced by criochirurghi the world.
We will analyze (and study) the various cold generator and related laws and methods of adjustment. Will verify the cryogenic techniques and it will deepen the themes in anticipation of future machines designed to relieve discomfort and improve the perfection of surgical interventions.
Will not escape with our investigations the norms of "imaging" that allow us to see inside the human body while the surgery takes place following the ice ball generated by the cryoprobes. We will therefore be able to understand what precautions are designed to protect healthy organs from the harmful effects caused by low temperatures. And costateremo the fundamental importance of "mathematical simulation" in this kind of surgical approach.
Recall that cryoablation of solid tumors performed percutaneously (through the skin), under ultrasound guidance or CT scan, can be treated with a minimally invasive technique cancers of the prostate and kidney, liver, lungs, bones, soft tissue and nerve tissue, causing a low level of pain and a minimum discomfort to the patient thanks to a very reduced postoperative stay (sometimes only one night). This promotes a faster postoperative recovery and offers the possibility to operate very elderly patients, who are in poor general condition, even with bleeding disorders to be able to perform the treatment several times, working on large areas of diseased tissue that would otherwise require a conventional management but demolishing and then store the organ and its functionality. The same holds true for open laparoscopic techniques in which case there is a criterion of "mini-invasive" than traditional surgery.
It is worthwhile to emphasize the fact that in some cases cryosurgery offers patients an efficient way, even when other therapies are not possible choices or equally efficient.
Throughout our in-depth study, as we said above, the rules of intervention and will not forget the men who, with their ingenuity, this allowed the development of surgical science. Do not omit the borders of the new medicine that helps in the interventions of the cold and the biological effects that the surgery itself gets on the immune system. Mention of hypothermia techniques that are now used in certain surgical procedures. It will open a door to the future instrumental that this surgical science promises to us.